Crossbow Building Wiki


  • Alm, Josef [1994] 1998. European Crossbows, a survey. Royal armouries monograph 3. Dorset.
  • Baatz, Dietwulf 1999. Katapulte und mechanische Handwaffen des spätrömischen Heeres. Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies Volume 11. 5-19.
  • Hermuth, Egon 1986. Die Armbrust - ein handbuch. Akademische druck- u. verlagsanstalt. Graz.
  • Middleton, Richard 2007. The practical guide to man-powered weapons and ammunition. Experiments with catapults, musketballs, stonebows, blowpipes, big airguns, and bullet bows. Skyhorse publishing. New York, NY, United States.
  • Paateri & Arkko 1990. Perinteisen suomalaisen varsijousen valmistus. Arma Fennica 4 - Suuri Jousikirja. Ed. Timo Hyytinen. 130-138. (ISBN 951-96205-0-8)
  • Payne-Gallwey, Ralph [1903] 1990. The crossbow. Medieval and modern, military and sporting. It's construction, history & management. Albert Saifer publisher. London. (Available on this site)
  • Richter, Holger 2006. Die Hornbogenarmbrust: Geschichte und Technik. Hörnig.
  • Sensfelder, Jens 2007. Crossbows in the Royal Netherlands Army Museum. Eburon Academic Publishers. Delft, Netherlands.
  • Simonett, C. 1942. War die Armbrust schon den Römern bekantt? Jahresberichte Ges. pro Vindonissa 1941/42. 15-17.
  • Stevens, George M. [1980] 1985. Crossbows. From thirty-five years with the weapon. Desert Publications. Cornville, Arizona, United States.
  • Wilson, G.M. [1976] 1981. Treasures of the Tower - Crossbows. Department of environment, London.


  • Allely, Steve et al. [1992] 2000. Traditional Bowyers Bible, Volume One. The Lyons Press. Canada.
  • Allely, Steve et al. 2008. Traditional Bowyers Bible, Volume Four. The Lyons Press. Canada.
  • Asbell, G. Fred et al. [1993] 2000. Traditional Bowyers Bible, Volume Two. The Lyons Press. Canada.
  • Baker, Tim et al. [1994] 2000. Traditional Bowyers Bible, Volume Three. The Lyons Press. Canada.
  • Baker, Tim [1994] 2000b. Bows of the World. Traditional Bowyers Bible, Volume Three. 43-98.
  • Baker, Tim [1993] 2000c. Strings. Traditional Bowyers Bible, Volume Two. 187-258.
  • Baker, Tim [1992] 2000d. Bow Design and Performance. Traditional Bowyers Bible, Volume One. 43-116.
  • Baker, Tim [1992] 2000e. Bows from boards. Traditional bowyers bible, volume two. Ed. Jimm Hamm. 19-50.
  • Baker, Tim 2008. Design and performance revisited. Traditional bowyers bible, volume four. 113-158.
  • Bálint, Csaba 2014. The bow from Holmegaard settlement and some remarks on the Mesolithic bows. The University of Copenhagen. Periodekursus 2 (Forhistorisk Arkæologi). (Available here)
  • Boie, Achim & Bader, HD 1995. Bows used by the Huns. Journal of the Society of Archer-Antiquaries 38. 28-32. (Available here)
  • Callahan, Errett 2001. Arctic Archery I-III. Primitive Technology II - Ancestral Skills. Ed. David Wescott. 119-133.
  • Hamm, Jimm [1992] 2000. Sinew backing. Traditional Bowyers Bible, Volume One. Ed. Jimm Hamm. 213-232.
  • Hamm, Jim [1992] 2000b. Tillering. Traditional Bowyers Bible, Volume One. Ed. Jimm Hamm. 257-286.
  • Hardcastle, Ron [1992] 2000. Cutting and seasoning wood. Traditional Bowyers Bible, Volume One. 19-42.
  • Karpowicz, Adam 2007. Ottoman bows -an assessment of draw weight, performance and tactical use. Antiquity 81. 675-685.(Available from this site)
  • Karpowicz, Adam 2008. Ottoman Turkish bows - manufacture and design. Canada.
  • Kooi, B.W. & Sparenberg, J.A. 1980. On the static deformation of a bow. Journal of Engineering Mathematics, 14.'. 27-45. (Available here)
  • Kooi, B.W. 1981. On the mechanics of the bow and arrow. Journal of Engineering Mathematics, 15. 119-145. (Available here)
  • Kooi, B.W. 1983. On the Mechanics of the Bow and Arrow. PhD thesis. Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. (Available here)
  • Kooi, B.W. 1991a. The 'cut and try' method in the design of the bow. Engineering Optimization in Design Processes, volume 63. 283-292. (Available here)
  • Kooi, B.W. 1991b. Archery and Mathematical Modelling. Journal of the Society of Archer-Antiquaries, 34. 21-29. (Available here)
  • Kooi, B.W. 1991c. On the mechanics of the modern working-recurve bow. Computational Mechanics, 8. 291-304. (Available here)
  • Kooi, B.W. 1993. On the Mechanics of some Replica Bows. Journal of the Society of Archer-Antiquaries, 36. 14-18. (Available here)
  • Kooi, B.W. 1994. The Design of the Bow. Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. v. Wetensch, 97, 283-309. (Available here)
  • Kooi, B.W. 1996. Functioning of ears and set-back at grip of Asiatic bows. Journal of the Society of Archer-Antiquaries, 39. 73-77. (Available here)
  • Kooi, B.W. & Bergman, C.A. 1997a. An Approach to the Study of Ancient Archery using Mathematical Modelling. Antiquity 71. 124-134. (Available here)
  • Kooi, B.W. & Sparenberg, J.A. 1997b. On the Mechanics of the Arrow: Archer's Paradox. Journal of Engineering Mathematics, 31. 285-306. (Available here)
  • Kooi, B.W. 1998b. The Archer's Paradox and Modelling, a Review. History of Technology, 20. 125-137. (Available here)
  • Lanting, J.N., Kooi, B.W., Casparie, W.A. & van Hinte, R. 1999. Bows from the Netherlands. Journal of the Society of Archer-Antiquaries, 42. 7-10. (Available here)
  • Lepola, Marcus 2015. Arctic bowyery - The use of compression wood in bows in the subarctic and archtic regions of Eurasia and America. Journal of ethnology and folkristics 9. 41-60. (Available here)
  • Peters, R.D. 2000. Archers compound bow - smart user of nonlinearity. Macon, Georgia, Unites States. (Available here)
  • Spotted Eagle, Douglas 1978. Making Indian Bows and Arrows... The Old Way. Liberty, Utah.
  • Tuijn, C. & Kooi, B.W. 1992. The measurement of arrow velocities in the students' laboratory. European Journal of Physics, 13. 127-134. (Available here)
  • Uruche, Petru 2013. The Bow and Arrow during the Roman Era. Ziridava studia archaeologica 27. (Available here).


  • Bealer, Alex W. [1969] 1995. The art of blacksmithing. Castle books. Edison, NJ.
  • Edhold, Steven & Wilder, Tamara 1999. Cordage. Primitive Technology - A book of earth skills. Ed. David Wescott. 149-150.


  • Gordon, J.E. 1978. Structures or Why Things Don’t Fall Down. Pelican. Harmondsworth. (Referred to by Koii, 1991b: 9)